What are the Different Types of Stem Cells?

Category: Blog

The foundation of the body’s natural growth and development relies on stem cells. Stem cells contain the ability to renew and produce new cells that can replenish damaged tissues.  Stem cells are delivering excitement in medical research.

The human body contains 300 trillion cells that are entirely specialized for specific functions such as the brain, heart, muscle tissue, bone and fat. Each cell type has a precise function and lifespan that is dependent on the desired activity of each cell.

For instance, blood cells live for a few months and are replaced every day. However, brain cells may last for a lifetime. Stem cells originate from the embryo, placenta, fetus, and other human body tissues.

Studies about stem cells remain controversial. Some studies show that these cells can generate the cell types of their resident tissue whereas some stem cells can generate other tissue types.

Embryonic Stem Cells (ESCs)

Embryonic stem cells are obtained from the embryo after in vitro fertilization, not from fertilized eggs in a woman’s body. ESCs are considered as pluripotent stem cells, meaning they can become any type of cell in the human body and they are found during the early stages of development.

With this understanding, stem cells have the potential to develop other cells like skin, nerve and intestine for transplantation purposes.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (IPSCs)

IPSCs are stem cells that are genetically recoded to an embryonic cell-like state by expressing genes that maintain the properties of embryonic stem cells. Further research is needed about induced pluripotent stem cells, but they can be useful for developing drugs, modeling diseases and medicine transplantation.

Researchers find these cells as a breakthrough discovery to help reprogram cells and repair tissue damage.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs)

Mesenchymal stem cells are also known as stromal cell types since they are derived from connective tissues (stroma) surrounding other organs and tissues. MSCs are multipotent cells that can differentiate into bone cells, cartilage cells, muscle cells and fat cells.

These cells may also be useful for transplantation and tissue repair. Immunorejection is not a problem since the donor and host remains the same.

Adult Stem Cells (ASCs)

Adult stem cells, also known as ‘somatic stem cells’ are more specialized than others. These cells are identified in organs and tissues including the brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skeletal muscles, skin, teeth, etc.

Based on research, they can self-renew indefinitely and they can generate cell types from which they stemmed from. For many years, ASCs have been used to treat leukemia and other bone or blood disorders.


At PM&R Associations we do a number of regenerative medicine therapies, including stem cell therapy when it is a fit. To find out if you are a candidate for stem cell therapy, or to find out more information contact us today. We are located in Indiana, and Dr. Silbert is a leading expert in the field.

At PM&R, we use only adult MSC cells.

Contact our office at (317) 794-2759.